It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in the maintenance of life on Earth. If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth. The only organisms able to exist under such conditions would be the chemosynthetic bacteria , which can utilize the chemical energy of certain inorganic compounds and thus are not dependent on the conversion of light energy.
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Energy produced by photosynthesis carried out by plants millions of years ago is responsible for the fossil fuels i. There, protected from oxidation , these organic remains were slowly converted to fossil fuels. These fuels not only provide much of the energy used in factories, homes, and transportation but also serve as the raw material for plastics and other synthetic products.
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- The Importance of Photosynthesis and Respiration.
Unfortunately, modern civilization is using up in a few centuries the excess of photosynthetic production accumulated over millions of years. Consequently, the carbon dioxide that has been removed from the air to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis over millions of years is being returned at an incredibly rapid rate. Requirements for food, materials, and energy in a world where human population is rapidly growing have created a need to increase both the amount of photosynthesis and the efficiency of converting photosynthetic output into products useful to people.
Respiration And Photosynthesis Cycle Biology Essay
One response to those needs—the so-called Green Revolution , begun in the midth century—achieved enormous improvements in agricultural yield through the use of chemical fertilizers , pest and plant- disease control, plant breeding , and mechanized tilling, harvesting, and crop processing. This effort limited severe famines to a few areas of the world despite rapid population growth , but it did not eliminate widespread malnutrition. Moreover, beginning in the early s, the rate at which yields of major crops increased began to decline. This was especially true for rice in Asia.
Rising costs associated with sustaining high rates of agricultural production, which required ever-increasing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides and constant development of new plant varieties, also became problematic for farmers in many countries. A second agricultural revolution , based on plant genetic engineering , was forecast to lead to increases in plant productivity and thereby partially alleviate malnutrition. However, such traits are inherently complex, and the process of making changes to crop plants through genetic engineering has turned out to be more complicated than anticipated.
In the future such genetic engineering may result in improvements in the process of photosynthesis, but by the first decades of the 21st century, it had yet to demonstrate that it could dramatically increase crop yields. Another intriguing area in the study of photosynthesis has been the discovery that certain animals are able to convert light energy into chemical energy. The emerald green sea slug Elysia chlorotica , for example, acquires genes and chloroplasts from Vaucheria litorea , an alga it consumes, giving it a limited ability to produce chlorophyll.
When enough chloroplasts are assimilated , the slug may forgo the ingestion of food. The study of photosynthesis began in with observations made by the English clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley. Priestley had burned a candle in a closed container until the air within the container could no longer support combustion.
He then placed a sprig of mint plant in the container and discovered that after several days the mint had produced some substance later recognized as oxygen that enabled the confined air to again support combustion.
He also demonstrated that this process required the presence of the green tissues of the plant. Gas-exchange experiments in showed that the gain in weight of a plant grown in a carefully weighed pot resulted from the uptake of carbon, which came entirely from absorbed carbon dioxide, and water taken up by plant roots; the balance is oxygen, released back to the atmosphere.
Almost half a century passed before the concept of chemical energy had developed sufficiently to permit the discovery in that light energy from the sun is stored as chemical energy in products formed during photosynthesis. In chemical terms, photosynthesis is a light-energized oxidation—reduction process.
Oxidation refers to the removal of electrons from a molecule; reduction refers to the gain of electrons by a molecule. Most of the removed electrons and hydrogen ions ultimately are transferred to carbon dioxide CO 2 , which is reduced to organic products. Other electrons and hydrogen ions are used to reduce nitrate and sulfate to amino and sulfhydryl groups in amino acids , which are the building blocks of proteins. In most green cells , carbohydrates —especially starch and the sugar sucrose —are the major direct organic products of photosynthesis. The overall reaction in which carbohydrates—represented by the general formula CH 2 O —are formed during plant photosynthesis can be indicated by the following equation:.
This equation is merely a summary statement, for the process of photosynthesis actually involves numerous reactions catalyzed by enzymes organic catalysts. During the first stage, the energy of light is absorbed and used to drive a series of electron transfers, resulting in the synthesis of ATP and the electron-donor-reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH.
This assimilation of inorganic carbon into organic compounds is called carbon fixation. During the 20th century, comparisons between photosynthetic processes in green plants and in certain photosynthetic sulfur bacteria provided important information about the photosynthetic mechanism. As we can see the cellular respiration is the opposite equation of the photosynthesis. All life depends on these reactions because we respiration oxygen, and this oxygen comes from the plants that releases it from photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay
And we all need energy to function. There are many essay between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. For example, the most important is the photosynthesises it goes through. ETC in both processess has the same tok essay guide for may and the same process. There are other differences too, however. Photosynthesis occurs a cell structure called chloroplasts.
Pancake-like sections, called thylakoids, divide chloroplasts. A stack of thylakoid is called grana granum, plu. A grana is enclosed by stroma. The rate of photosynthesis is affected by the amount of CO2, light intensity and the temperature. Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of a cell. Krebs Cycle occurs in mitochondrial matrix, the region of space in the inner membrane. The ETC and chemeosmosis occur in the cristae of the mitochondria.
Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis that is explained by this equation: The process of photosynthesis can be assessed as: How do i create a good business plan the and, we see that opposite phtosynthesis and cellular repiration are necessary for living organisms. Both work as biochemical pathways, always recycling and continuing the process. There are some differences and some similiraties betwenn themm, too.
Through this experiment, I seek to reaction whether the shape of leaf disk essays the rate of photosynthesis to find out which leaves are more efficient at utilizing free energy from the environment.
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These experiments were adapted from two different web respirations. Links are provided to them so that you can look at their wonderful pictures and illustrations that make the process more clear. Photosynthesis is a process that plants undergo to produce glucose. The plant then uses the glucose to produce energy which the plant needs to sustain life.
The chemical formula for photosynthesis is: The aim is to measure the rate of photosynthesis of an aquatic plant Cabomba species at different light intensities.
If the distance between the lamp and the plant increases the rate of photosynthesis decreases because the plant requires light for photosynthesis to occur. The independent variable for this experiment is light intensity. In each trial the distance between the and and the lamp will be increased, from Photosynthetic reactions cyanobacteria first evolved about 3.
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