Download PDF Download. Author links open overlay panel Daniele Wikoff a Brian T.
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Welsh b Rayetta Henderson c Gregory P. Under a Creative Commons license. Keywords Caffeine. Abbreviations ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. BMC bone mineral content. BMD bone mineral density. BMI body mass index. CDH chronic daily headache. CI confidence interval. CNS central nervous system. COI conflict of interest.
COMT catechol- O -methyl transferase. CVD cardiovascular disease. CVM cardiovascular malformation. ED emergency department. HDL high-density lipoprotein. HF high frequency. IOM Institute of Medicine.
Effects of caffeine on sleep quality and daytime functioning
IUGR intrauterine growth restriction. LD limb defect. LDL low-density lipoprotein. LF low frequency. LOEL lowest observed effect level. It is evident that caffeine does not affect lexical decision performance in general, but in accordance with the initial hypotheses specific interactions with the emotional valence of the stimulus were observed. This result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the left hemisphere advantage of positive stimuli in word processing. In general the present results mirror that of previous divided visual field emotional word recognition studies.
Thus, the emotional word recognition effect in the present study should be attributed to processing of positive verbal information in the left hemisphere. Such an effect is consistent with the predictions of the VHM  — . Abbassi and colleagues  further proposed that emotional information is automatically activated when processed by the left hemisphere.
Given that the target stimuli were presented for ms in this study, the observed differences between left and right hemispheric processing seem consistent with the assumption of an early locus of this effect in the word recognition stream. Of note is that an early automatic evaluation has been discussed to be involved in emotional word recognition  ,  and effects prior to ms have repeatedly been observed  , . Moreover, Hofmann and colleagues were able to localize an emotional word recognition effect in a left-hemispheric posterior temporal brain region  discussed to support visual word form processing.
Still, the link between the dopaminergic system and the posterior temporal lobe seems rather unspecific. On the other hand, it is well known that the striatum is activated during word recognition  ,  ,  and more generally in perceptual decision making . The striatum has been discussed to be related to response criterion setting . It seems likely that the facilitated processing of positive words also affects the setting of a trial-by-trial response criterion, which could describe a mechanism that explains how these two streams of processing, dopaminergically driven decision making and emotional word recognition, interact in the lexical decision task.
Also, a LH striatal dominance is known and has been linked to motor lateralization and right hand preference  , .
Main Effects and Interactions
Thus, a possible neural mechanism how caffeine affects emotional word recognition would link increased dopaminergic transmission following caffeine consumption in the striatum  to LH dominant activations in right-handers  ,  , . Thus the availability of dopamine that is itself closely tied to motor preparedness  may specifically interact with LH activations in the basal ganglia in language processing  ,  and striatal activations when recognizing emotional positive words. Future neuroimaging studies are needed to examine this possible link.
Thus, emotion effects in the placebo control group are diminished — which is surprising given the results of previous divided visual field emotional word recognition studies  ,  and the generally known effects of emotional content in word recognition  ,  , . Of note is, that overall the error rates were high, which is indicative of a high task difficulty of the present procedure that could have contributed to these small effects.
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We would like to address this to methodological differences between these two studies, in particular the focus on response latencies in  vs. By computing a mixed-effect logistic regression on the error data, we were able to estimate the effect of subjectively judged stimulus arousal in explaining the present results.
Alternatively, the control of caffeine intake itself could have contributed to these small emotion effects in the placebo group, i. Thus, for example, caffeine mood effects have been interpreted under the withdrawal reversal hypothesis  ,  : Due to the fact that studies mainly examined caffeine effects after 12 hours of abstinence, it is discussed whether the positive effects of caffeine result from the removal of withdrawal effects in normal caffeine consumers. Accordingly, compared to the placebo group results, an effect of everyday caffeine consumption could have contributed to these earlier results, which should also be addressed in future examinations.
To what extend did early and late effects of word recognition contribute to the present results? Pseudowords receive their meaning from their phonology, which models of word recognition, like the MROM-p  , assume to rely on late and effortful processing in visual word recognition. Such models propose that at sublexical processing stages, orthographic information has to be transferred to sublexical phonological codes, which activate lexical entries at the phonological word level  that trigger the button press.
In contrast, words are processed directly along the associations between sublexical and lexical orthographic. Together with the model predictions it seems likely that late phonological effects modulated the responses to RH stimuli, whereas decisions to LH stimuli, in accordance with its function in visual verbal processing relied more on early orthographic processing. A pseudoword, that is per definition word-like based on its phonology, is harder to correctly reject when its phonology is already being processed. This is exactly what is visible in the caffeine group. Thus, based on this effect, it is also possible that caffeine has a late effect on the processing of visual verbal material, probably associated with the decision stage.
This would also be more consistent with the role of dopaminergic transmission in the striatum in perceptual decision making and the lexical decision task  ,  , but cannot be solved based on the present results. The application of caffeine in the experimental group resulted in small but significant effects compared to a placebo control group, which reveal that caffeine does not simply affect overall task performance in a simple two-choice decision paradigm.
Presenting emotional words and nonwords in a divided visual field paradigm led to a higher order interaction between the emotional valence of the stimuli, their initial hemispheric processing and group membership. This interaction with an enhanced processing of positive stimuli after caffeine intake is consistent with the initial hypothesis of a dopaminergically driven positivity advantage in emotional word recognition that seems specifically boosted in the language-dominant left brain when processing verbal stimuli.
A comparable effect when processing negative or emotionally arousing words and pseudowords was not observed. This pattern additionally underlines the differential effects of positive and negative valence in emotional word recognition. Result Table of the Mixed-effects logistic regression with accuracy as the dependent variable. Conceived and designed the experiments: LK VL. Performed the experiments: VL. Analyzed the data: LK VL.
Wrote the paper: LK VL. Browse Subject Areas?
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Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. Introduction An important dimension to categorize emotional content is valence, i. Methods The experiment was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local ethics committee of the Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum.
Participants Sixty-six healthy participants age Download: PPT. Analyses The data has been analyzed using R system for statistical computing version 2. Table 2.
Table 3. Behavioral results. Average data per condition and group. Figure 1. Average signal detection performance measures P and accuracy per condition and experimental group. Mixed-effect Logistic Regression The mixed-effect logistic regression on the error data replicates the above pattern of results see Material S1. Discussion Both analyses, the signal detection approach and the mixed-effect logistic regression agreed in the fact that caffeine affects performance in the affective lexical decision task.
Conclusion The application of caffeine in the experimental group resulted in small but significant effects compared to a placebo control group, which reveal that caffeine does not simply affect overall task performance in a simple two-choice decision paradigm. Supporting Information. Material S1. Material S2. Material S3. References 1. Ochsner KN Are effective events richly recollected or simply familiar?
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Researchers study connection of adolescent caffeine consumption and substance abuse
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