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When mitochondria stop functioning, the cell they are in is starved of energy. So, depending on the type of cell, symptoms can vary widely.
As a general rule, cells that need the largest amounts of energy, such as heart muscle cells and nerves, are affected the most by faulty mitochondria. Diseases that generate different symptoms but are due to the same mutation are referred to as genocopies. Conversely, diseases that have the same symptoms but are caused by mutations in different genes are called phenocopies.
An example of a phenocopy is Leigh syndrome , which can be caused by several different mutations. Over recent years , researchers have investigated a link between mitochondria dysfunction and aging. There are a number of theories surrounding aging, and the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging has become popular over the last decade or so.
The theory is that reactive oxygen species ROS are produced in mitochondria, as a byproduct of energy production. These highly charged particles damage DNA, fats, and proteins. Because of the damage caused by ROS, the functional parts of mitochondria are damaged. When the mitochondria can no longer function so well, more ROS are produced, worsening the damage further. Although correlations between mitochondrial activity and aging have been found, not all scientists have reached the same conclusions. Their exact role in the aging process is still unknown. Mitochondria are, quite possibly, the best-known organelle.
And, although they are popularly referred to as the powerhouse of the cell, they carry out a wide range of actions that are much less known about. From calcium storage to heat generation, mitochondria are hugely important to our cells' everyday functions. Article last reviewed by Thu 8 February All references are available in the References tab. Adams, J. Human Evolutionary Tree. Nature Education, 1 1 , Bratic, A. The role of mitochondria in aging.
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Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47 3 , — Rossier, M. T channels and steroid biosynthesis: In search of a link with mitochondria. Cell Calcium, 40 2 , — Taylor, S. Ghosh, S. Characterization of the human heart mitochondrial proteome. Nature Biotechnology, 21 3 , — Wang, C.
The role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Annual Review of Genetics, 43 , 95— What is mitochondrial disease? MLA Newman, Tim. MediLexicon, Intl. APA Newman, T. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. Privacy Terms Ad policy Careers. Visit www. All rights reserved. More Sign up for our newsletter Discover in-depth, condition specific articles written by our in-house team.
Send securely. Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. By Tim Newman. Reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD. A basic diagram of a mitochondrion. Mitochondria are important in a number of processes. If mitochondria do not function correctly, it can cause a range of medical problems. Parkinson's disease: Could the answer lie in mitochondria of dopamine cells? Dopamine cells in Parkinson's brains are less protected from age-related damage in their mitochondrial DNA than cells in healthy brains.
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